Potamogeton crispus, aka curly-leaf pondweed, is an aquatic perennial plant with leaves that have a wavy margin. In its native habitat it is not considered a problem,
however in North America it's an invasive plant. The traits that make it
successful in its native range are the traits that are a cause for concern in Washington State. This invasive weed forms thick mats on the water's surface, which interfere with fishing, boating, and swimming.
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It is designated a Class C noxious weed in Washington, meaning it is
widespread in the state and so unlikely to be completely eradicated from the State, but should still be removed if
possible. Eradication projects in other lakes have used herbicides, biological control, and mechanical
Your assignment: Write a short technical paper aimed at resource managers from the Washington State
Department of Natural Resources that answers the questions listed below. Your paper should be 2.5 to 3
pages, double-spaced, 12-point font, with 1” margins. Your paper should:
1. Provide a general description of the morphology of curly-leaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus).
2. Provide a detailed description of how angiosperm plants reproduce sexually, including all cell types
involved and the steps of the process.
3. Provide a detailed description of how angiosperm plants get taller or longer (achieve primary growth),
including all cell types involved and the steps of the process.
4. Provide a description of some of the unique aspects of curly-leaf pondweed asexual reproduction.
5. Provide a description of the problems with curly-leaf pondweed in Washington state.
6. Provide an explanation of how curly-leaf pondweed spreads in its environment, and why it is such a
successful invader in North America. Link this explanation to your descriptions of angiosperm sexual
reproduction, angiosperm primary growth, and pondweed asexual reproduction.
7. Provide a description of how curly-leaf pondweed was likely introduced into Vancouver Lake.
8. Provide a brief description of the approaches used to control the spread of or eradicate curly-leaf
pondweed. How successful have these approaches been in the fight against pondweed in other lakes?
9. Be supported by at least two (2) references to sources
notes, at least one of which should be a scholarly, peer-reviewed article.
In a separate section at the end of your paper (doesn't count for page limit) please include a Bibliography list
with all the articles, book, websites etc. that you cite in your text. Follow the formatting instructions below.
Please do not just answer these questions in the order given. You should compose an essay that addresses all
these points, but in a cohesive way.
You need to write this essay IN YOUR OWN WORDS. Do not fill the paper with textbook definitions or other
language that is not your own. You should not use
any direct quotes. Even though you are writing this in your own words, you still need to cite any outside sources
you use to support your ideas. For this paper you should use at least two sources, of which one should be a scholarly journal article. The other source(s) may come from a
range of media, including newspapers, websites or magazines. Paraphrase the ideas you get from your sources,
and then include the authors’ name(s) and the year of publication of the sources you use.
In-text Citation style: Please use the following format examples for citing your sources.
“Natural selection is a process first described by Charles Darwin (Reece et al. 2014).” “Pygmy frogs live in the
cloud forests of the Andean mountains (Catenazzi et al. 2015).” “The newly discovered frog species looks very
similar to other Nublella species, except for its strikingly colored belly (Pappas 2015).”
In biological sciences, we typically use a citation format that is similar, but not identical to APA formatting